WAY OF MEASURING OF CAPACITANCE AND HEAT OF SNOW LAYERS
INTENDED FOR PREDICTION OF GLACIERS AND AVALANCHES
Posted in part fulfillment in the requirements pertaining to the 6 months training
" DEFENCE RESEARCH & CREATION ORGANISATIONвЂќ
(Snow And Increase Study Establishment)
Ministry Of Defence, Government. of India
Univ. rotate no - 6810407662
Office of Consumer electronics and Electric communication
Indo Global School Of Engineering, Abhipur
When emotions happen to be profound, words sometimes aren't sufficient expressing our thanks a lot and appreciation. With this thought, I express my gratitude and indebtedness to all or any those people who have helped and provided the particular much-needed eagerness and the steady encouragement essential. The present form of this work has come on after contribution from several spheres. We sincerely share my deep gratitude to Mr. Rajiv Kumar Dasjenige, Scientist-D (DRDO), Mr. L. K Garg, Scientiest-E (DRDO), Mr. Sanjeev kumar, Scientiest-E(CSIO) for their assistance, constructive ideas, timely support, constant encouragement and supervision in each and every step throughput the work. Their inimitable support helped in channeling my own efforts in proper directions. I wish to exhibit my special thanks to Mr. Amod Kumar, Head-CSIO pertaining to using the laboratory facilities and resources at CSIO. Last but not the least; I also acknowledge the support by various analysts in the related field who helped me by clearing my own doubts using their experience.
Measurement of capacitance & temperature is needed for determining the physical & chemical composition of Snow.. This current study will probably be beneficial inside the areas having mass break down due to abrupt breakdown of snow tiers i. elizabeth. in Avalanche and Glacier prone areas. As a part of SASE(Snow and Influx Study) difficulty, I thought of making a project which will be very useful in combating the hazards of snow and avalanches not only to help the military to battle and live in the mountains yet also to accelerate the pace of socio-economic regarding the unavailable snowbound slope regions. This project is dependent on the Integration of capacitance & temperature dimension devices. Several technologies just like embedded program, Various software programs such as Matlab, Orcad, Set up language Programming is used with this project. To get integration RS 232 is used. In addition to all this, AVR Atmega almost 8 is developed. For capacitance measurement, a cylindrical capacitor is used. For Temperature measurement, thermocouple can be used[Cold Junction Compensation]#@@#@!!. With the use of this kind of project, both readings of temperature and capacitance can be discovered and by choosing into see the change of capacitance & temperature of snow together with the melting snow, type of snow, the risc assessment can be achieved. Definitely this project can prove to be extremely beneficial monetarily as well as formally.
LIST OF FIGURES
TitlePage No .
Propagation of Light through Fiber10
Fiber Optic Communication10
Propagation in Single Method Fiber11
Propagation in Multimode Fiber11
Distribution in Rated Index Fiber12
The Cross-Section of the PIN Photodiode14
The Cross Part of APD15
Flow chart for PCB layout27
Block Plan of Power Supply30
Schematic of Power Supply31
Schematic of MFOE7132
Flag Configuration of LM74133
Schematic of Transmitter Circuit (V to F) 33 Flag Configuration of LM33135
FLAG Photodiode 37 Receiver Circuit (F to V)...