Satellite Connection in India Essay

PROJECT STATEMENT

ON

WAY OF MEASURING OF CAPACITANCE AND HEAT OF SNOW LAYERS

INTENDED FOR PREDICTION OF GLACIERS AND AVALANCHES

Posted in part fulfillment in the requirements pertaining to the 6 months training

Performed at

" DEFENCE RESEARCH & CREATION ORGANISATION”

(Snow And Increase Study Establishment)

Ministry Of Defence, Government. of India

PRESENTED BY:

SOURAB SALOTRA

ECE-7TH SESSION

Univ. rotate no - 6810407662

Office of Consumer electronics and Electric communication

Indo Global School Of Engineering, Abhipur

Mohali

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

When emotions happen to be profound, words sometimes aren't sufficient expressing our thanks a lot and appreciation. With this thought, I express my gratitude and indebtedness to all or any those people who have helped and provided the particular much-needed eagerness and the steady encouragement essential. The present form of this work has come on after contribution from several spheres. We sincerely share my deep gratitude to Mr. Rajiv Kumar Dasjenige, Scientist-D (DRDO), Mr. L. K Garg, Scientiest-E (DRDO), Mr. Sanjeev kumar, Scientiest-E(CSIO) for their assistance, constructive ideas, timely support, constant encouragement and supervision in each and every step throughput the work. Their inimitable support helped in channeling my own efforts in proper directions. I wish to exhibit my special thanks to Mr. Amod Kumar, Head-CSIO pertaining to using the laboratory facilities and resources at CSIO. Last but not the least; I also acknowledge the support by various analysts in the related field who helped me by clearing my own doubts using their experience.

SUBJECTIVE

Measurement of capacitance & temperature is needed for determining the physical & chemical composition of Snow.. This current study will probably be beneficial inside the areas having mass break down due to abrupt breakdown of snow tiers i. elizabeth. in Avalanche and Glacier prone areas. As a part of SASE(Snow and Influx Study) difficulty, I thought of making a project which will be very useful in combating the hazards of snow and avalanches not only to help the military to battle and live in the mountains yet also to accelerate the pace of socio-economic regarding the unavailable snowbound slope regions. This project is dependent on the Integration of capacitance & temperature dimension devices. Several technologies just like embedded program, Various software programs such as Matlab, Orcad, Set up language Programming is used with this project. To get integration RS 232 is used. In addition to all this, AVR Atmega almost 8 is developed. For capacitance measurement, a cylindrical capacitor is used. For Temperature measurement, thermocouple can be used[Cold Junction Compensation]#@@#@!!. With the use of this kind of project, both readings of temperature and capacitance can be discovered and by choosing into see the change of capacitance & temperature of snow together with the melting snow, type of snow, the risc assessment can be achieved. Definitely this project can prove to be extremely beneficial monetarily as well as formally.

LIST OF FIGURES

TitlePage No .

Optical Fiber9

Propagation of Light through Fiber10

Fiber Optic Communication10

Propagation in Single Method Fiber11

Propagation in Multimode Fiber11

Distribution in Rated Index Fiber12

The Cross-Section of the PIN Photodiode14

The Cross Part of APD15

Bubble Chart19

Cosmetic Design20

Flow chart for PCB layout27

Block Plan of Power Supply30

Schematic of Power Supply31

Schematic of MFOE7132

Flag Configuration of LM74133

Schematic of Transmitter Circuit (V to F) 33 Flag Configuration of LM33135

FLAG Photodiode 37 Receiver Circuit (F to V)...



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